Evidence for the fabled King Solomon of Israel is nonexistent. Biblical historians Thomas L. Thompson and Niels Peter Lemche of the University of Copenhagen and Philip Davies of the University of Sheffield argue that David and Solomon, and indeed the entire biblical description of the history of Israel, are nothing more than ideological constructs produced by priestly circles in Jerusalem in post-exilic times. Nineteenth- and early 20th-century excavations around the Temple Mount in Jerusalem failed to identify even a trace of Solomon’s legendary temple or palace complex. The king called Solomon is most likely based upon the Assyrian god Shulmanu- Ashared. “Shulmanu” translates as “foremost one.”…….cont’d
The Odes date from the second century, and were probably written in Greek or Aramaic. At least one scholar has suggested they may have an origin in Valentinian Gnosticism, though this is of course speculative. The Church Father Lactantius (third century) quoted from them, and the Pistis Sophia mentions about five complete Odes.